Types of Cancers

Stage I means the cancer is small and only in one area. This is also called early-stage cancer. Stage II and III mean the cancer is larger and has grown into nearby tissues or lymph nodes. Stage IV means the cancer has spread to other parts of your body.
In quite a few cancers, stage 4 means the cancer has spread (metastasised) to another part of the body to form secondary cancers (metastases). As a general rule cancers that have spread are difficult to treat and are unlikely to be cured in the long term, although treatment can help to shrink or control them.

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)

Adolescents, Cancer in

Adrenocortical Carcinoma

AIDS-Related Cancers

Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

AIDS-Related Lymphoma (Lymphoma)

Primary CNS Lymphoma (Lymphoma)

Anal Cancer

Appendix Cancer - see Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

Astrocytomas, Childhood (Brain Cancer)

Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor, Childhood, Central Nervous System (Brain Cancer)

B

Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin - see Skin Cancer

Bile Duct Cancer

Bladder Cancer

Bone Cancer (includes Ewing Sarcoma and Osteosarcoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma)

Brain Tumors

Breast Cancer

Bronchial Tumors (Lung Cancer)

Burkitt Lymphoma - see Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

C

Carcinoid Tumor (Gastrointestinal)

Carcinoma of Unknown Primary

Cardiac (Heart) Tumors, Childhood

Central Nervous System

Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor, Childhood (Brain Cancer)

Medulloblastoma and Other CNS Embryonal Tumors, Childhood (Brain Cancer)

Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood (Brain Cancer)

Primary CNS Lymphoma

Cervical Cancer

Childhood Cancers

Cancers of Childhood, Rare

Cholangiocarcinoma - see Bile Duct Cancer

Chordoma, Childhood (Bone Cancer)

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)

Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer, colon cancer, or rectal cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine). Signs and symptoms may include blood in the stool, a change in bowel movements, weight loss, and fatigue.

Most colorectal cancers are due to old age and lifestyle factors, with only a small number of cases due to underlying genetic disorders. Risk factors include diet, obesity, smoking, and lack of physical activity. Dietary factors that increase the risk include red meat, processed meat, and alcohol. Another risk factor is inflammatory bowel disease, which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Some of the inherited genetic disorders that can cause colorectal cancer include familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer; however, these represent less than 5% of cases.It typically starts as a benign tumor, often in the form of a polyp, which over time becomes cancerous.

Bowel cancer may be diagnosed by obtaining a sample of the colon during a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. This is then followed by medical imaging to determine whether the disease has spread.Screening is effective for preventing and decreasing deaths from colorectal cancer. Screening, by one of a number of methods, is recommended starting from the age of 50 to 75.During colonoscopy, small polyps may be removed if found.If a large polyp or tumor is found, a biopsy may be performed to check if it is cancerous. Aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease the risk. Their general use is not recommended for this purpose, however, due to side effects.

Treatments used for colorectal cancer may include some combination of surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Cancers that are confined within the wall of the colon may be curable with surgery, while cancer that has spread widely is usually not curable, with management being directed towards improving quality of life and symptoms.The five-year survival rate in the United States is around 65%The individual likelihood of survival depends on how advanced the cancer is, whether or not all the cancer can be removed with surgery and the person's overall health.Globally, colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer, making up about 10% of all cases. In 2018, there were 1.09 million new cases and 551,000 deaths from the disease. It is more common in developed countries, where more than 65% of cases are found. It is less common in women than men.


Craniopharyngioma, Childhood (Brain Cancer)

Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma - see Lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome)

D

Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) - see Breast Cancer

E

Embryonal Tumors, Medulloblastoma and Other Central Nervous System, Childhood (Brain Cancer)

Endometrial Cancer (Uterine Cancer)

Ependymoma, Childhood (Brain Cancer)

Esophageal Cancer

Esthesioneuroblastoma (Head and Neck Cancer)

Ewing Sarcoma (Bone Cancer)

Extracranial Germ Cell Tumor, Childhood

Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor

Eye Cancer

Intraocular Melanoma

Retinoblastoma

F

Fallopian Tube Cancer

Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone, Malignant, and Osteosarcoma

G

Gallbladder Cancer

Gastric (Stomach) Cancer

Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor

Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST) (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

Germ Cell Tumors

Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors (Brain Cancer)

Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors

Testicular Cancer

Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

H

Hairy Cell Leukemia

Head and Neck Cancer

Heart Tumors, Childhood

Hepatocellular (Liver) Cancer

Histiocytosis, Langerhans Cell

Hodgkin Lymphoma

Hypopharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)

I

Intraocular Melanoma

Islet Cell Tumors, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

K

Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

L

Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis

Laryngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)

Leukemia

Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)

Liver Cancer

Lung Cancer (Non-Small Cell, Small Cell, Pleuropulmonary Blastoma, and Tracheobronchial Tumor)
Lung and bronchial cancer: 792,495 lives Lung and bronchial cancer is the top killer cancer in the United States. Smoking and use of tobacco products are the major causes of it, and it strikes most often between the ages of 55 and 65, according to the NCI.

Lymphoma

M

Male Breast Cancer

Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone and Osteosarcoma

Melanoma

Melanoma, Intraocular (Eye)

Merkel Cell Carcinoma (Skin Cancer)

Mesothelioma, Malignant

Metastatic Cancer

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary (Head and Neck Cancer)

Midline Tract Carcinoma With NUT Gene Changes

Mouth Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

Multiple Myeloma/Plasma Cell Neoplasms

Mycosis Fungoides (Lymphoma)

Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

Myelogenous Leukemia, Chronic (CML)

Myeloid Leukemia, Acute (AML)

Myeloproliferative Neoplasms, Chronic

N

Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)

Nasopharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)

Neuroblastoma

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

O

Oral Cancer, Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer and Oropharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)

Osteosarcoma and Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma of Bone Treatment

Ovarian Cancer

P

Pancreatic Cancer

Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors (Islet Cell Tumors)

Papillomatosis (Childhood Laryngeal)

Paraganglioma

Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)

Parathyroid Cancer

Penile Cancer

Pharyngeal Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)

Pheochromocytoma

Pituitary Tumor

Plasma Cell Neoplasm/Multiple Myeloma

Pleuropulmonary Blastoma (Lung Cancer)

Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) Lymphoma

Primary Peritoneal Cancer

Prostate Cancer

R

Rare Cancers of Childhood

Rectal Cancer

Recurrent Cancer

Renal Cell (Kidney) Cancer

Retinoblastoma

Rhabdomyosarcoma, Childhood (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

S

Salivary Gland Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)

Sarcoma

Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

Childhood Vascular Tumors (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

Ewing Sarcoma (Bone Cancer)

Kaposi Sarcoma (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

Osteosarcoma (Bone Cancer)

Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Uterine Sarcoma

Sézary Syndrome (Lymphoma)

Skin Cancer

Small Cell Lung Cancer

Small Intestine Cancer

Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin - see Skin Cancer

Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary, Metastatic (Head and Neck Cancer)

Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

T

T-Cell Lymphoma, Cutaneous - see Lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides and Sèzary Syndrome)

Testicular Cancer

Throat Cancer (Head and Neck Cancer)

Nasopharyngeal Cancer

Oropharyngeal Cancer

Hypopharyngeal Cancer

Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma

Thyroid Cancer

Tracheobronchial Tumors (Lung Cancer)

Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter (Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer)

U

Unknown Primary, Carcinoma of

Ureter and Renal Pelvis, Transitional Cell Cancer (Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer

Urethral Cancer

Uterine Cancer, Endometrial

Uterine Sarcoma

V

Vaginal Cancer

Vascular Tumors (Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

Vulvar Cancer

W

Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

Y

Young Adults, Cancer in

The 10 Deadliest Cancers and Why There's No Cure

While there are many successful treatments today that didn't exist just a couple decades ago, a wholesale "cure for cancer" remains elusive for many reasons. There are more than 100 types of cancer, characterized by abnormal cell growth. There are many different causes, ranging from radiation to chemicals to viruses; an individual has varying degrees of control over exposure to cancer-causing agents.


Cancer cells, and how they grow, remain unpredictable and in some cases mysterious. Even after seemingly effective treatments, crafty cancer cells are able to hide out in some patients and resurface.


About $200 billion has been spent on cancer research since the early 1970s, and the five-year survival rate for all people diagnosed with cancer in the U.S. has risen from about 50 percent in the 1970s to 65 percent today.


Here's a look at the 10 cancers that killed the most people in the United States between 2003 and 2007, the most recent data available, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

1. Lung and bronchial cancer: 792,495 lives Lung and bronchial cancer is the top killer cancer in the United States. Smoking and use of tobacco products are the major causes of it, and it strikes most often between the ages of 55 and 65, according to the NCI. There are two major types: non-small cell lung cancer, which is the most common, and small cell lung cancer, which spreads more quickly. More than 157,000 people are expected to die of lung and bronchial cancer in 2010.



2. Colon and rectal cancer:268,783 lives Colon cancer grows in the tissues of the colon, whereas rectal cancer grows in the last few inches of the large intestine near the anus, according to the National Cancer Institute. Most cases begin as clumps of small, benign cells called polyps that over time become cancerous. Screening is recommended to find the polyps before they become cancerous, according to the Mayo Clinic. Colorectal cancer is expected to kill more than 51,000 people in 2010.


3. Breast cancer: 206,983 lives Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women in the United States, after skin cancer, according to the Mayo Clinic. It can also occur in men – there were nearly 2,000 male cases between 2003 and 2008. The cancer usually forms in the ducts that carry milk to the nipple or the glands that produce the milk in women. Nearly 40,000 people are expected to die from breast cancer in 2010, according to the NCI.


4. Pancreatic cancer: 162,878 lives Pancreatic cancer begins in the tissues of the pancreas, which aids digestion and metabolism regulation. Detection and early intervention are difficult because it often progressives stealthily and rapidly, according to the Mayo Clinic. Pancreatic cancer is expected to claim nearly 37,000 lives in 2010, according to the NCI.


5. Prostate cancer: 144,926 lives This cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer deaths in men, after lung and bronchial cancer, according to the NCI. Prostate cancer usually starts to grow slowly in the prostate gland, which produces the seminal fluid to transport sperm. Some types remain confined to the gland, and are easier to treat, but others are more aggressive and spread quickly, according to the Mayo Clinic. Prostate cancer is expected to kill about 32,000 men in 2010, according to the NCI.


6. Leukemia: 108,740 lives There are many types of leukemia, but all affect the blood-forming tissues of the body, such as the bone marrow and the lymphatic system, and result in an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells, according to the NCI. Leukemia types are classified by how fast they progress and which cells they affect; a type called acute myelogenous leukemia killed the most people – 41,714 – between 2003 and 2007. Nearly 22,000 people are expected to die from leukemia in 2010.


7. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: 104,407 lives This cancer affects the lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, and is characterized by larger lymph nodes, fever and weight loss. There are several types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and they are categorized by whether the cancer is fast- or slow-growing and which type of lymphocytes are affected, according to the NCI. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is deadlier than Hodgkin lymphoma, and is expected to kill more than 20,000 people in 2010.


8. Liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer: 79,773 lives Liver cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer around the world, but is uncommon in the United States, according to the Mayo Clinic. However, its rates in America are rising. Most liver cancer that occurs in the U.S. begins elsewhere and then spreads to the liver. A closely related cancer is intrahepatic bile duct cancer, which occurs in the duct that carries bile from the liver to the small intestine. Nearly 19,000 Americans are expected to die from liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer in 2010, according to the NCI.


9. Ovarian cancer: 73,638 lives Ovarian cancer was the No. 4 cause of cancer death in women between 2003 and 2007, according to the NCI. The median age of women diagnosed with it is 63. The cancer is easier to treat but harder to detect in its early stages, but recent research has brought light to early symptoms that may aid in diagnosis, according to the Mayo Clinic. Those symptoms include abdominal discomfort, urgency to urinate and pelvic pain. Nearly 14,000 women are expected to die of ovarian cancer in 2010, according to the NCI.


10. Esophageal cancer: 66,659 lives This cancer starts in the cells that line the esophagus (the tube that carries food from the throat to the stomach) and usually occurs in the lower part of the esophagus, according to the Mayo Clinic. More men than women died from esophageal cancer between 2003 and 2007, according to the NCI. It is expected to kill 14,500 people in 2010.


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